Philippines changed radically, and was before patterned from both of educational systems of Spain and the United States. However, after the liberation of the Philippines in 1946, Filipinos then had moved in various directions of its own.Elementary and high school education is compulsory, and is administered nationally by the Department of Education, along with the assurance of funding for school services and equipments, recruitment of teachers for all public schools, and the supervising and organization of the education curricula.Based on the current education system of the Philippines, students should enter elementary schools at the age of 6 or 7, and for a duration of 6 years. Then, at the age of 12 or 13, students then enter high schools for a duration 4 years. The total years of education is 10.However, recently, the Department of Education proposed the K-12 education system, along with the new curriculum for all students. The implementation of the system is "phased". The first phase of the implementation will start on SY 2012-2013. During this school year, universal kindergarten will be finally offered, and will now be a part of the compulsory education system; and a new curriculum for Grade 1 and Grade 7 students. By SY 2016-2017, Grade 11/Year 5 will be introduced, and Grade 12/Year 6 by SY 2017-2018; with the phased implementation of the new curriculum finished by the SY 2017-2018.However, during the new educational cycle, from 2016 to 2018, college enrollment could slow down or could turn to nil because of the entrance of the lower-year students to the new educational system.All public and private elementary schools, high schools and colleges and universities in the Philippines start classes from early-June to mid-June and end from mid-March to early-April.
RATIONALE OF K to 12 IMPLEMENTION IN THE PHILIPPINES
The President noted that the Philippines is the only country in Asia and one of only three in the world – two of which are in Africa – with a 10-year basic education program.
“How do Filipinos become competitive if from the very beginning we are already at a disadvantage in the number of years of studying and training? What we want is to give the next generation a strong foundation,” Aquino said.Early grades
- Since career exploration and awareness of the world of work are the
key for this age group, bring parents and friends who have unique work
experiences to the classroom. Have classroom visitors talk about the
positive aspects of work and its related values. Demonstrate how
careers/jobs produce all kinds of benefits/good feelings. Be sure to
brief the visitors on what aspects of their work they should discuss
with the students. Have them blend the aspects of work values with how
people feel about themselves.
- This is an excellent time to focus on careers and self-esteem.
Linking the world of work to self-esteem/self-concept issues is
essential during this period of development. Accomplish this through
play techniques that simulate work experiences and relevant
- Help students develop resilience, assets identified that
children need in order to grow strong and self-determined, by providing
examples of ways to deal with age-appropriate problems. Resilience is a
great strength and students need to maximize this asset at an early age.
- Teach students how careers/work can contribute to a sense of
well-being or happiness. Positive psychology holds that happiness can be
taught. Focusing on the positive and rewarding and praising children
for it, helps them develop important strengths.
- Connect the student�s signature strengths, those
characteristics that make them unique and which contribute to feelings
of well-being and success, to aspects of career development. For
example, leadership, kindness, love of learning, to name a few, can be
readily related to careers and jobs.
- Do discussions or group exercises that allow the students to talk about their strengths and how these strengths might be useful for facing the demands of careers or everyday life (Steen, Kachorek, & Peterson, 2003).
- Middle grades are the most important and most demanding in a
student�s development and potential for success. The most critical task,
we believe, is to continue developing the signature strengths of the
students. These strengths, linked to the world of work and values, will
serve as �buffering agents� to facilitate children�s positive
development. Without certain strengths to buffer the negative forces of
development, students will not be successful.
- Similarly, this is the ideal time to introduce students to
service learning experiences. Doing some good for someone else,
especially if it is associated with careers and career exploration, will
enhance one�s own self-esteem and positive development. Field trips
related to service learning projects with a career influence, no matter
how short the duration, can build positive outcomes. Research on middle
school students has shown how service learning experiences can build
positive strengths (Scales, 1999).
- Show, by using examples from history, current events etc., how people�s careers are inextricably bound to their sense of self-worth and how happy they are in life.
- Greater focus can be directed to serious career exploration and
review. Detailed and directed assignments regarding career specifics and
strengths can begin. Strength audits, taking stock of one�s assets and
buffering strengths are techniques that can be productive.
- Linking expanded service learning experiences with career
exploration can have ancillary positive outcomes. Educational
requirements and the associated benefits of post secondary education
should be explored.
- Allow students to focus on interviewing individuals in
particular careers; getting at the dynamics of career benefits from a
positive perspective is a good technique for this age group. Help
students to identify and use their signature strengths in the interview
- Get parents and community members involved in planned evening events such as college nights and career nights, where specific interactions between the world of work/career and personal well-being/success are emphasized.
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